Alternative Fee Arrangements


There are many creative ways to structure an engagement that fits a client’s exact needs and also allows us to accept the case. Call us to discuss how we can work with you or your company.


An hourly fee agreement is a contract between a client and the law firm wherein attorneys and para-professionals charge the client by the hour for legal services. Each attorney, paralegal, or legal assistant who works on a case records his or her time for each task. After the end of each month, the firm prepares an invoice to the client for the legal services provided during the previous month. We multiply each timekeeper’s billable hours by the person’s hourly rate; subject to adjustments, at our discretion, if we feel that a task should have been handled more efficiently. The firm then charges the invoice against the client’s retainer funds deposited in our trust account or sends the invoice to the client for payment.


Alternative fee arrangements (AFAs) are negotiated fee agreements between clients and attorneys that allow the clients to pay for legal services by other than by the traditional billable hour. Types of AFAs include contingent fee agreements, hybrid fee agreements, flat or fixed fees agreements, do-not-exceed agreements, reverse contingent fee agreements, success fees, and numerous variations on the above.

AFAs are a method of allocating the risks and rewards of litigation and can work well for both clients and law firms in appropriate cases. If done right, the law firm’s fee should reflect the value the client receives from the representation, as opposed to the time the law firm spends on the case, while still allowing the law firm to make a profit.[1] An effective AFA aligns the client’s interests and the law firm’s interest.

To be successful, an AFA must benefit both the client and the law firm. Some clients like AFAs because such agreements can help clients better manage their budgets and financial risk by sharing with their attorneys both the risks and the rewards of a lawsuit. We like AFAs because by assuming some of the risks and betting on our skills and experience as trial attorneys, we have the opportunity to make more money than we might earn billing the client by the hour. We also appreciate the freedom that AFAs permit when we don’t have to worry that everything we do on a case is going to cost the client more money. AFAs permit creativity and unusual strategies that the client might not otherwise be able to afford.

For clients who are individual people, families, or small businesses, contingent fee agreements or other AFAs may be the only way that the clients can obtain access to the courts.


A contingent fee agreement is a contract between the client and law firm in which the client’s requirement to pay the law firm an attorney fee is contingent on the law firm recovering a settlement or judgment for the client. The client is not required to pay for the law firm’s legal services unless the law firm is successful in recovering money for the client. The law firm’s fee is usually a percentage of the recovery. If we lose the case, then the client does not pay us a fee, and is usually responsible only for the litigation costs.

We find that in the right cases both we and our clients can benefit from contingent fee agreements. We and our clients rise and fall together.

Some of our business clients also like contingent fee agreements because the agreements enable the client to better manage budgets and risk. Contingent fee agreements provide access to the courts for individuals and companies who could not otherwise afford to litigate. Depending upon the type of case, in some circumstances even very financially successful people or businesses could not afford to pursue a lawsuit without a contingent fee agreement or some other alternative fee arrangement.

Contingent fee percentages

We price for risk. Thus, our contingent fee percentages vary from case to case depending upon the nature and complexity of the matter. For less complex cases, such as simple breach of contract or personal injury case, our contingent fee percentages range from 25% of the recovery -- usually if the case is settled pre-suit -- to 33 1/3% of the recovery if the case is settled after filing suit. For more difficult and high-risk cases, our contingent fee percentage is usually 40% to 45% of the recovery. If we have to take the case on appeal or try the case a second time, the percentage may be higher.

Depending upon the case, we will occasionally agree to “stair-step” our contingent fee percentage, so that the contingent fee percentage increases depending on the stage of case as it approaches trial.

Selection of contingent fee cases

We are very selective with our contingent fee cases, and we accept only a small percentage of such cases that are offered to us. Our philosophy is that we will not accept a case on a contingent fee basis unless we believe in the case and are willing and able to fully prepare and take the case through a trial. Thus, we carefully analyse all potential contingent fee cases before agreeing to take a case.

With some complex business and legal malpractice cases, often involving byzantine tax, intellectual property, or business transactions, clients will hire us on an hourly or fixed fee basis to analyse the case. We may hire consultants to help us with the analysis. By investing a relatively small amount of money up front, the client can make an informed decision about whether to proceed with the lawsuit, and we can make an informed decision about whether we want accept the case on a contingent fee or other alternative fee arrangement.

We do not accept contingent fee cases with the hopes of a quick settlement and without plans to take the case to trial.

All cases cannot be accepted on a contingent fee basis

Many strong cases do not lend themselves to contingent fee agreements for a variety of reasons. For example, if we are defending a company in a business lawsuit, a good result for the client may be a win at trial or an order granting a motion for summary judgment. The good result is that the client does not have to pay a judgment or settlement. Despite the good result, such a result creates no fund from which we can collect a contingent fee, so a contingent fee agreement would not be appropriate in such circumstances. However, such a case may be appropriate for a reverse contingent fee agreement or other alternative fee arrangement.

Moreover, even if a case is suitable for a contingent fee agreement, we must carefully manage our resources and cash flow. Thus, we do not accept contingent fee cases where we believe that the case will be so demanding as to interfere with our ability to represent other clients, or pay our overhead during the case, or where the potential return on our investment of time and money will not justify the risk. In such circumstances, we may represent the client on a traditional hourly fee basis, a hybrid contingent fee-hourly fee basis, or with other AFAs. We may also partner with other law firms to spread the risk and the reward.

Call us if you are interested in a contingent fee agreement.


Reverse contingent fee agreement are generally used when a client is a defendant in a lawsuit and has a clearly defined financial exposure and is at risk to lose the case. If we agree to defend the client in the lawsuit with a reverse contingent fee agreement, the client agrees to pay us a contingent fee that is an agreed-upon percentage of the difference between the client’s predetermined financial exposure and the final amount of any judgment or settlement that the client pays. For example, if the client’s pre-determined financial exposure is $10 million, and, after litigation, we negotiate a settlement for $4 million, the client would pay us a percentage of the $6 million savings as the reverse contingent fee. On the other hand, if we proceed to trial and lose $10 million, then the client would pay us nothing. Reverse contingent fee agreements also can be used as part of a hybrid fee agreement, where the client agrees to pay us at a lower hourly rate, or on a monthly flat fee, and agrees to pay us a percentage of the savings as a reverse contingent fee.

Reverse contingent fee agreements allow companies to budget and manage risk. Reverse contingent fee agreements only work if the client has the financial resources to reserve and pay the reverse contingent fee.

Call us if you are interested in a reverse contingent fee agreement.


There are various types of hybrid fee agreements. A simple version is a blended hourly rate agreement where all of the attorneys and paralegals bill their time at the same hourly rate. A fee collar agreement is an agreement where the attorneys and paralegals bill their normal hourly rates, but the client and the law firm agree to a minimum and maximum fee for the matter. A fixed fee plus hourly agreement is in which the law firm charges a fixed fee for certain tasks or projects in the engagement, and charges by the hour for other tasks.

An hourly rate plus contingent fee agreement – the type of hybrid agreement that we most often use - is a fee agreement in which we agree to accept a lower hourly rate than we would normally charge, but also take a percentage of any recovery as our contingent fee if we are successful.

Call us if you are interested in a hybrid fee agreement.


A do-not-exceed fee agreement is a variation of the “fee collar” hybrid agreement. In a do-not-exceed agreement, the law firm agrees to cap legal fees at a specific amount. Such an agreement usually works best for discrete projects, such as when the client wants an early investigation and analysis a legal claim before proceeding with a lawsuit. We bill by the hour for our services; however, we agree that our charges will not exceed the pre-determined cap without the client’s written permission. If our charges approach the pre-set cap, we notify the client and we will stop further work (although we may voluntarily complete the project without extra charge if we are close to completion).

Clients often choose do-not-exceed fee agreements when they engage us to analyze potential legal malpractice claims or particularly byzantine commercial transactions. A client’s early and limited investment in analyzing a claim allows the client to make an informed decision about whether to proceed with a lawsuit.

Clients benefit from do-not-exceed fee agreements because the agreement brings predictable cost to a limited engagement. Moreover, if we can complete the analysis and provide the client with the legal advice for less that the agreed-upon the cap, the client saves the difference. The risk to the client is that in circumstances we may not be able to finish the project within the cap. However, the client can then make an informed decision about whether to proceed with the project.

If we are required to engage outside consultants or expert witnesses to conduct our analysis, those consultant expenses are outside the negotiated do-not-exceed cap.

Call us if you are interested in a do-not-exceed fee agreement.


A fixed fee agreement is an agreement where the client pays a fixed fee for the legal representation, regardless of the time the attorneys and staff put into the case. Fixed fee agreements are often used in criminal defense representations, but can also be used in many different types of litigation, such as a simple breach of contract case or foreclosure proceeding. The client often is required to pay litigation costs in addition to the fixed fee.

A flat fee agreement is an agreement where the client pays a monthly flat fee for the legal representation regardless of the time the law firm puts into the case during the month. Flat fee agreements can work well in a major case in which a team of attorneys and paralegals will be spending substantial time on the case each month, or where there are a series of similar major cases.

Flat fee agreements can be combined with other hybrid fee agreements, such as contingent fee agreements or reverse contingent fee agreements. Again, the client usually is required to pay litigation costs in addition to the flat fee.

Call us if you are interested in a fixed or flat fee agreement.


A retainer is a generic term that can mean several things: a fee paid up front to the law firm to engage the firm; a periodic payment to the law firm so that the law firm will be available to consult with the client; or, as is most commonly used in litigation, a deposit for legal fees and legal expenses to be charged in the future.

Most law firms, including Ogborn Mihm Quaintance, PLLC, require most clients to provide retainer deposits because we have cash flow requirements like any business. We want to ensure that we can pay our overhead, and retainers help us manage our cash flow and our budget. If the retainer serves as a deposit, we place the retainer in our client trust account. We then charge our fees and costs advanced to the client’s retainer each month. At the end of the engagement, if our fees and the litigation costs are paid in full, we return any remaining funds to the client.

An evergreen retainer is a type of deposit that the client is required to replenish the deposit to a pre-set amount each month as fees and expenses are charged against the deposit. We require evergreen retainer provisions in most of our fee agreements.

A retainer is usually not a fixed fee. Just because the client pays a retainer up front does not mean that client will not owe legal fees and costs beyond the amount of the retainer. Such would be a fixed fee agreement; in litigation matters, most retainers merely serve as a deposit held in the law firm’s client trust account for legal fees and expenses to be incurred in the future. Therefore, before signing a fee agreement with any law firm, please carefully read the agreement and make sure that you clearly understand how the term “retainer” is being used.

Call us if you questions about retainers.


Litigation costs

Litigation costs are the expenses incurred in a lawsuit other than attorney fees. Such expenses commonly include court filing fees, court reporter fees charges, expert witness fees, photocopy or digital scanning expenses, and a host of other items. In certain cases, litigation costs may include forensic accounting, engineers to perform accident reconstruction, or destructive testing of products, such as in automobile products liability cases.

While we are eager to accept alternative fee arrangements, we also want our clients to have some “skin in the game” with respect to the litigation costs. Thus, we ask that our clients pay litigation costs if the client has that ability to do so. Indeed, if the potential client has the ability to pay litigation costs, but refuses to do so, we will usually decline the case regardless of the merits. Our thinking is that we and our clients are effectively “partners” for purposes of the lawsuit. If we are going to undertake the risk and investment of our time and money to pursue the client’s claims, we want the client to be fully committed to the endeavour, both by committing the client’s time and the client’s financial resources if the client has the resources.

How we handle litigation costs

Unless we have agreed to advance litigation costs on behalf of a client, we will generally pass on invoices to a client for direct payment. For example, if we receive an invoice from an expert witness, or a court reporter, we will generally forward the invoice to the client for direct payment. For smaller advances or when necessary for other practical reasons, we may advance the cost on behalf of the client, and then invoice the client for the cost that we have advanced.

Paying client’s litigation costs

If the client does not have the ability to contribute to litigation costs, and we agree to take the cases, we may agree to advance the client’s litigation costs. However, we will usually require the client to repay us those costs advanced when we recover a settlement or judgment. We may slightly increase the contingent fee percentage to account for the increased risk of advancing costs to a client.

Unless we specifically agree otherwise in our engagement letter, a client will be obligated to repay us litigation costs that we advance on the client’s behalf even if the client loses the case.

For additional information about alternative fee arrangements, please call us. We can discuss the crafting of a fee agreement that works for you, everyone.


Litigation is war! When is the last time that a war was concluded on time and under budget? While we can reliably predict budgets for some routine litigation, for example, simple breach of contract cases or some personal injury lawsuits, other types of litigation can easily deviate from the most carefully prepared budgets. Complicated business, legal malpractice and bet-the-company litigation can take unforeseen twists and turns that eviscerate budgets, almost always for the worse.

We often prepare litigation budgets for a client; we think that preparing a budget is often helpful for case planning. For complicated cases, budgets are often not simple projects and may take days to complete. Moreover, because our client will have an opponent who is plotting to thwart our client’s litigation goals, and may be actively attempting to do our client harm, litigation budgets must be continually monitored, revised and updated to reflect the current state of the lawsuit.

Remember, every battle plan is good until the first shot is fired. So it is true with litigation budgets.

Recent Post

If you are a small business, you should be aware of the upcoming January 1, 2024, Corporate Transparency Act (CTA) […]
Read More
Succession planning is the process for determining how your business should continue after you retire or pass away or if […]
Read More
From commercial growth to talent acquisition, there are many advantages to merging with another business. However, it’s not uncommon for […]
Read More
1 2 3 5
Ogborn logo with pattern
140 N. Phillips Ave. Suite 203
Sioux Falls, South Dakota 57104
Copyright © 2024 Ogborn Mihm Quaintance, PLLC | XML Sitemap | HTML Sitemap - All Rights Reserved.
Powered by:
Epic Web Results logo